Displaying items by tag: RO

Monday, 22 May 2017 11:39

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

  1. Technical Description
  2. Plant Design
  3. Feed Water
  4. Desalinated Water & Brine
  5. Data and Information
  6. Preferred Use
  7. Environmental Impact
  8. Stage of Maturity
  9. Further Developments
  10. References

1. Technical Description


Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a technology to remove ions from water by applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous carbon electrodes, in which ions will be temporarily stored.

CDI is a technology also known as Electrochemical Demineralization 〈1〉 or as Electrosorption 〈2〉. CDI's preferred use is in low salinity desalination applications (in principle below 10,000 ppm (1), in practice below 4,000 ppm (4)), where the benefit is lower energy consumption and higher recovery rates in comparison to Reverse Osmosis (RO) or distillation as alternative methods of brackish water desalination. This is mainly because CDI removes only salt ions, i.e. a tiny mass, from the salty feed water, whereas in RO or distillation a massively larger mass of water is removed from the salty feed water (1).


2. Plant design


The humidification dehumidification (HD) process uses the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure of water in air. The vapour pressure of water in air at saturation rises exponentially with the temperature. The dependence can be approximated e.g. by the Antoine equation:

Published in Reverse Osmosis (RO)